Module 2: Basic Pharmacology of Controlled Drugs and Substances

Lesson 5

Psychosocial influences

Psychosocial factors must be considered when utilizing controlled drugs and substances within treatment plans.  There is no one explanation for why prescription drugs are misused: there are multiple potential pathways affecting patient engagement. Robinson and Woo (2016) identify five spheres that influence positive outcomes in regards to medication therapy: personal, biomedical, interpersonal, socioeconomic, and health system.



  • Figure 6-1. Five spheres of influence and multiple factors that impact adherence and self-management. Robinson, M., & Woo, T.  (2016). Factors that foster positive outcomes in Pharmacotherapeutics for nurse practitioner prescribers (3rd  ed.). Philadelphia, PA: F. A. Davis Company. Derived from Wheeler, K., Roberts, M., & Neiheisel, M. (2014). Medication adherence part two: Predictors of nonadherence and adherence. Journal of the American Association of Nurse Practitioners, 26(4), 225–232. doi: