Module 2: Basic Pharmacology of Controlled Drugs and Substances

Lesson 1

Opioids – Common indications and dosages

Opioids are used in the symptomatic treatment of moderate to severe pain associated with surgery or medical conditions such as trauma, myocardial infarction, or terminal cancer. Nebulized or intranasal opioids (eg. morphine, fentanyl) have been used in the management of dyspnea in patients with chronic lung diseases or terminal cancer or pain in children. Other uses include codeine and hydrocodone as antitussives.  Opioids should not be used in the management of mild pain and should not be the first-line choice for managing pain of any kind.