Module 2: Basic Pharmacology of Controlled Drugs and Substances
Opioids – Common indications and dosages
Opioids are used in the symptomatic treatment of moderate to severe pain associated with surgery or medical conditions such as trauma, myocardial infarction, or terminal cancer. Nebulized or intranasal opioids (eg. morphine, fentanyl) have been used in the management of dyspnea in patients with chronic lung diseases or terminal cancer or pain in children. Other uses include codeine and hydrocodone as antitussives. Opioids should not be used in the management of mild pain and should not be the first-line choice for managing pain of any kind.
- National Opioid Use Guideline Group (NOUGG). (2017). Canadian Guideline for Safe and Effective Use of Opioids for Chronic Non-Cancer Pain.
- SickKids. (2016). Pain Management: Clinical Practice Guidelines. Retrieved from https://www.sickkids.ca/clinical-practice-guidelines/clinical-practice-guidelines/export/CLINH142/Main%20Document.pdf
- SickKids. (2016). Supracondylar fractures. Retrieved from http://www.sickkids.ca/POP/TIP/elbow/Supracondylar-fractures/Index.html#8. How should this fracture be treated in the emergency department?